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北大新材料学院发现新型β相磷酸铁锂电池材料新材料前沿--欧宝体育app
更新时间:2022-09-21 字号:T|T
博亚体育

       锂离子电池电极材料一向是比来几十年的热点能源材料。锂离子电池因为其轮回可操纵、能量密度高的优势,今朝已获得普遍的贸易化出产和利用,小到电子器件、电动自行车,年夜到电动汽车、能源(风能、地热能等)存储。锂离子电池由正极、负极和电解液组成,今朝的负极材料已具有很高的容量、倍率和不变性,电解液的窗口电压和离子传导能力也能知足年夜部门电极材料,可是正极材料的倍任性能、容量和不变性却还远跟不上。是以,开辟新型正极材料一向是一个主要研究标的目的。在正极材猜中,磷酸铁锂材料橄榄石型(oliven-LiFePO4)具有一维锂离子迁徙通道,因为其布局不变、价钱廉价而成为研究的热门,已普遍利用在电动汽车动力电池上。除橄榄石型以外,β相磷酸铁锂(β-LiFePO4)是另外一种布局分歧的磷酸铁锂材料,这类材摒挡论能量密度比橄榄石相更高。可是,纯的β磷酸铁锂材料被证实是没有活性的。纯相β-LiFePO4中锂离子和四周氧原子是以四面体配位的情势存在,分歧锂离子被彼此隔分开来,橄榄石相中的锂离子一维分散通道不复存在,反而是铁原子占有了原本的一维锂离子通道,致使没有有用的锂离子迁徙通道存在,是以不克不及充放电,没有锂电池电极材料的活性。假如在β-LiFePO4中可以或许引入新的锂离子分散通道,实现高的电化学机能有望成为实际。
  近日,新材料学院潘锋传授团队在此范畴获得重年夜冲破。他们利用球磨手艺第一次实现了β磷酸铁锂的激活。用球磨β-LiFePO4样品作正极材料组装的锂电池实现了130mA g-1的容量和1000次以上轮回的不变充放电。经由过程进一步的尝试和第一性道理计较,他们提出并验证了缺点激活机制。球磨进程引入了Li/Fe反位(FeLi)和Fe空位(VFe),使得本来没有通道的纯相β-LiFePO4发生了低能垒的三维锂离子通道,从而使得β-LiFePO4被成功激活。该功效使β-LiFePO4成为一种具有利用潜力的新型正极材料,同时相干的机理也为此后正极材料的设计供给了新思绪,好比引入无序来激活被软禁的锂离子,从而取得高电化学机能。相干工作近日颁发在国际材料闻名期刊Nano Letters(DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b04302,Nature Index杂志之一,影响因子13.6)上,2013级硕士研究生郭华、宋孝河是该文章的配合第一作者, 特聘研究员郑家新博士和潘锋传授是配合通讯作者。
  左图为缺点态β-LiFePO4布局和锂离子迁徙通道示意图和响应的迁徙能垒,右图为分歧球磨前提(例如bLFPC-8为球磨8小时)下的充放电曲线
  该工作的合作者还包罗新材料学院兼职传授、美国伯克利国度尝试室的Wangli Yang传授,美国阿贡尝试室的Khalil Amine传授等。该项工作获得了国度电动汽车动力电池重年夜专项、广东省引进科技立异团队项目、深圳孔雀打算和深圳市科技立异根本项目等基金的撑持。

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